نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی - کاربردی

نویسندگان

1 گروه ریاضی، واحد سمنان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، سمنان، ایران.

2 گروه مدیریت، واحد سمنان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، سمنان، ایران.

10.22105/dmor.2023.345520.1616

چکیده

هدف: هدف از این پژوهش ارایه نسخه ترکیبی و بهبودیافته از یکی از روش­‌های تصمیم­‌گیری چند شاخصه است که به دلیل تعامل سازنده با تصمیم­‌گیرنده ابزار مفیدتری برای پشتیبانی تصمیم است.
روش‌شناسی پژوهش: برای این منظور از یک مساله برنامه‌ریزی خطی با قیود کنترل وزن و توابع شدت تشخیص برای ارایه روش بهبودیافته WASPAS استفاده شد و این امکان فراهم گردید تا در زمانی که وزن صریحی برای شاخص‌ها از تصمیم‌گیرنده اخذ نشده و صرفا اولویت شاخص‌ها مشخص است بتوان گزینه‌ها را رتبه­‌بندی کرد.
یافته‌ها: نتایج حاصل از مقایسه استفاده روش پیشنهادی و روش WASPAS نشان داد این روش از قابلیت خوبی برای استفاده در مسایل تصمیم­‌گیری چندمعیاره برخوردار است و در این مساله خاص نتایج استفاده از این روش مشخص کرد در شرایط همه‌­گیری کووید-19 سبک رهبری حمایتی بالاترین رتبه را در بین سبک‌­های رهبری به خود اختصاص داد و پس از آن به ترتیب سبک تبادلی، مشارکتی، تحول‌آفرین و آمرانه قرار گرفت.
اصالت/ارزش‌افزوده علمی: در این پژوهش روش بهبودیافته WASPAS برای تعیین اولویت و وزن معیارها در حل مسایل MADM ارایه و برای تعیین سبک رهبری سازمان در همه‎‌­گیری کووید-19 به‌کار گرفته شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Improved WASPAS method for determining criteria priority and weights in solving MADM problems: a case study to determine leadership style in Covid-19 pandemic

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehdi Soltanifar 1
  • Seyyed Mohammad Zargar 2
  • Maryamsadat Aman 2

1 Department of Mathematics, Semnan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Semnan, Iran.

2 Department of Management, Semnan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Semnan, Iran

چکیده [English]

Purpose: The purpose of this research is to provide a hybrid and improved version of one of the Multi-Attribute Decision-Making (MADM) methods, which is a more useful tool for decision support due to the constructive interaction with the decision-maker.
Methodology: For this purpose, a linear programming problem with weight restriction and discrimination intensity functions was used to present the improved WASPAS method, and thus, when the explicit weight for the indicators was not taken from the decision maker, it was possible to rank the options.
Findings: The results of comparing the use of the proposed method with the WASPAS method showed that this method has a good capability for use in multi-criteria decision making problems and in this particular issue, the results of using this method showed that in the context of the Covid-19 epidemic, the supportive leadership style had the highest rank among the leadership styles, followed by the transactional leadership, participatory, transformational and was placed authoritative.
Originality/Value: In this study, the improved WASPAS method was presented to determine the priority and weight of criteria in solving MADM problems and to determine the organizational leadership style in the Covid-19 pandemic.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • WASPAS method
  • Improved WASPAS method
  • Organizational leadership style
  • Covid-19 pandemic
[1]        Sotoudeh-Anvari, A. (2022). The applications of MCDM methods in COVID-19 pandemic: a state of the art review. Applied soft computing, 126, 109238. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1568494622004562
[2]        Soltanifar, M. (2021). An investigation of the most common multi-objective optimization methods with propositions for improvement. Decision analytics journal, 1, 100005. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2772662221000059
[3]        Karimi, N., Feylizadeh, M. R., Govindan, K., & Bagherpour, M. (2022). Fuzzy multi-objective programming: a systematic literature review. Expert systems with applications, 196, 116663. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S095741742200149X
[4]        Ilbahar, E., Cebi, S., & Kahraman, C. (2019). A state-of-the-art review on multi-attribute renewable energy decision making. Energy strategy reviews, 25, 18–33. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211467X19300410
[5]        Defalque, C. M., da Silva, A. F., & Marins, F. A. S. (2021). Goal programming model applied to waste paper logistics processes. Applied mathematical modelling, 98, 185–206. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0307904X21002341
[6]        Tostado-Véliz, M., Kamel, S., Aymen, F., & Jurado, F. (2022). A novel hybrid lexicographic-IGDT methodology for robust multi-objective solution of home energy management systems. Energy, 253, 124146. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360544222010490
[7]        Fathollahi-Fard, A. M., & Hajiaghaei-Keshteli, M. (2018). A stochastic multi-objective model for a closed-loop supply chain with environmental considerations. Applied soft computing, 69, 232–249.
[8]        Yang, Z., Liu, Y., Fan, T., & Zhang, L. (2022). The topological structure of the set of fuzzy numbers with Lp metric. Topology and its applications, 312, 108081. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166864122000839
[9]        Abo-Sinna, M. A., & Baky, I. A. (2007). Interactive balance space approach for solving multi-level multi-objective programming problems. Information sciences, 177(16), 3397–3410.
[10]         Alinezhad, A., & Khalili, J. (2019). New methods and applications in multiple attribute decision making (MADM) (Vol. 277). Springer.
[11]         Minhas, A. S., & Singh, S. (2021). A new bearing fault diagnosis approach combining sensitive statistical features with improved multiscale permutation entropy method. Knowledge-based systems, 218. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0950705121001465
[12]         Bräuning, M., Hüllermeier, E., Keller, T., & Glaum, M. (2017). Lexicographic preferences for predictive modeling of human decision making: a new machine learning method with an application in accounting. European journal of operational research, 258(1), 295–306.
[13]         Basu, M. (2004). An interactive fuzzy satisfying method based on evolutionary programming technique for multiobjective short-term hydrothermal scheduling. Electric power systems research, 69(2), 277–285.
[14]         Youssef, N. A. N., & Popplewell, N. (1979). The maximax response of discrete multi-degree-of-freedom systems. Journal of sound and vibration, 64(1), 1–15.
[15]         Ma, J., Yang, S., Shi, G., & Ma, L. (2022). A multiplicative maximin-based evaluation approach for evolutionary many-objective optimization. Applied soft computing, 121, 108760. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1568494622001946
[16]         Guo, X., Guo, Q., Valipour, E., & Nojavan, S. (2022). Risk assessment of integrated concentrated solar system and biomass using stochastic dominance method. Solar energy, 235, 62–72.
[17]         Liu, Y., Eckert, C. M., & Earl, C. (2020). A review of fuzzy AHP methods for decision-making with subjective judgements. Expert systems with applications, 161, 113738. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0957417420305625
[18]   Aragonés-Beltrán, P., Chaparro-González, F., Pastor-Ferrando, J. P., & Rodríguez-Pozo, F. (2010). An ANP-based approach for the selection of photovoltaic solar power plant investment projects. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, 14(1), 249–264.
[19]   Liang, F., Brunelli, M., & Rezaei, J. (2022). Best-worst Tradeoff method. Information sciences, 610, 957–976.
[20]   Tavana, M., Soltanifar, M., & Santos-Arteaga, F. J. (2023). Analytical hierarchy process: revolution and evolution. Annals of operations research, 326(2), 879–907. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10479-021-04432-2
[21]   Wang, Y., Liu, P., & Yao, Y. (2022). BMW-TOPSIS: a generalized TOPSIS model based on three-way decision. Information sciences, 607, 799–818. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020025522006004
[22]   Vafaei, N., Ribeiro, R. A., & Camarinha-Matos, L. M. (2022). Assessing normalization techniques for simple additive weighting method. Procedia computer science, 199, 1229–1236. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877050922001570
[23]   Rasi, M., & Mohammadi Dolat-Abadi, H. (2022). Proposing a framework for identifying the competitive advantage of small and medium-sized manufacturing organizations under uncertainty conditions. Journal of decisions and operations research, 7(4), 515–529. https://www.journal-dmor.ir/article_138290.html
[24]   Mirsaeedi, F., Koosha, H., & Ghodoosi, M. (2021). Evaluation of data mining algorithms on educational data using multi-criteria decision-making methods. Journal of decisions and operations research, 6(1), 41–55.
[25]   Wang, X., Gou, X., & Xu, Z. (2020). Assessment of traffic congestion with ORESTE method under double hierarchy hesitant fuzzy linguistic environment. Applied soft computing, 86, 105864. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asoc.2019.105864
[26]   Esmaeili, S., Fathi Hafshejani, K., Valmohammadi, C., & Haddadi Harandi, A. A. (2023). Using combinational method DEMATEL and ANP with the fuzzy approach to prioritization of learning organization criteria in Iranian schools. Journal of decisions and operations research, 8(1), 133–152. DOI:10.22105/dmor.2022.313801.1521
[27]   Soltanifar, M. (2023). Improved kemeny median indicator ranks accordance method. Asia-pacific journal of operational research, 40(03), 2250024. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0217595922500245
[28]   Kumar, P., Singh, R. K., & Kharab, K. (2017). A comparative analysis of operational performance of cellular mobile telephone service providers in the delhi working area using an approach of fuzzy ELECTRE. Applied soft computing, 59, 438–447. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1568494617303629
[29]   Yatsalo, B., Radaev, A., & Martínez, L. (2022). From MCDA to fuzzy MCDA: presumption of model adequacy or is every fuzzification of an mCDA method justified? Information sciences, 587, 371–392.
[30]   Xiao, L., Huang, G., Pedrycz, W., Pamucar, D., Martínez, L., & Zhang, G. (2022). A q-rung orthopair fuzzy decision-making model with new score function and best-worst method for manufacturer selection. Information sciences, 608, 153–177. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020025522006557
[31]   Shirzad, H., Abbasi Farajzadeh, M., Hosseini Zijoud, S. R., & Farnoosh, G. (2020). The role of military and police forces in crisis management due to the COVID-19 outbreak in Iran and the world. Journal of police medicine, 9(2), 63–70. http://jpmed.ir/browse.php?a_id=887&slc_lang=en&sid=1&printcase=1&hbnr=1&hmb=1
[32]   Xames, D., Tasnim, F., Mim, T. I., & Kiron, A. (2022). COVID-19 and food supply Chain disruptions in bangladesh: impacts and strategies. International journal of research in industrial engineering (2783-1337), 11(2). https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Md-Doulotuzzaman-Xames/publication/363291210_COVID-
[33]   Dirani, K. M., Abadi, M., Alizadeh, A., Barhate, B., Garza, R. C., Gunasekara, N., ... & Majzun, Z. (2020). Leadership competencies and the essential role of human resource development in times of crisis: a response to Covid-19 pandemic. Human resource development international, 23(4), 380–394.
[34]   Daly, J., Jackson, D., Anders, R., & Davidson, P. M. (2020). Who speaks for nursing? COVID-19 highlighting gaps in leadership. Journal of clinical nursing, 29(15-16), 2751–2752.
[35]   Alberca, G., Fernandes, I., Sato, M., & Alberca, R. (2020). What Is COVID-19? Frontiers for young minds, 8, 74. DOI:10.3389/frym.2020.00074
[36]   Zhu, H., Wei, L., & Niu, P. (2020). The novel coronavirus outbreak in wuhan, China. Global health research and policy, 5(1), 6. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41256-020-00135-6
[37]   Bundy, J., & Pfarrer, M. D. (2015). A burden of responsibility: the role of social approval at the onset of a crisis. Academy of management review, 40(3), 345–369. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2013.0027
[38]   Lawton-Misra, N., & Pretorius, T. (2021). Leading with heart: academic leadership during the COVID-19 crisis. South african journal of psychology, 51(2), 205–214. https://doi.org/10.1177/0081246321992979
[39]   Ahern, S., & Loh, E. (2021). Leadership during the COVID-19 pandemic: building and sustaining trust in times of uncertainty. BMJ leader, 5(4), 266–269. https://bmjleader.bmj.com/content/5/4/266
[40]   Abdullah, N. N., & Anwar, G. (2021). Global financial outlook during the COVID-19 Pandemic: the role of effective leadership styles on financial outlook. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3824670
[41]   Rafiq, M., Zhang, X., Jia-hai, Y., & Naz, S. (2020). Human resource management: theory to practice: evidences from literature. International journal of management research and emerging sciences, 9(1), 31–38.
[42]   Sejati, S., Isnaini, D., Fitria, R., Kusmidi, H., & Hadikusuma, W. (2021). The influence of emotional intelligence and leadership style on employee loyalty during Covid-19 pandemic:(surveyin university Islamic state Raden Intan Lampung and IAIN province bengkulu in 2020). Annals of the romanian society for cell biology, 25(3), 2951–2962. http://www.annalsofrscb.ro/index.php/journal/article/view/1760
[43]   Zulch, B. (2014). Leadership communication in project management. Procedia - social and behavioral sciences, 119, 172–181. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877042814021120
[44]   Listiani, K., Bernarto, I., & Pramono, R. (2021). Transformational leadership and organizational innovation: the role of goal-oriented synergistic interaction. The journal of asian finance, economics and business, 8(6), 909–920. https://koreascience.kr/article/JAKO202115563425851.page
[45]   Fauzi, M. A., Martin, T., & Ravesangar, K. (2021). The influence of transformational leadership on malaysian students’ entrepreneurial behaviour. Entrepreneurial business and economics review, 9(1), 89–103.
[46]   Dalluay, V. S., & Jalagat, R. C. (2016). Impacts of leadership style effectiveness of managers and department heads to employees’ job satisfaction and performance on selected small-scale businesses in cavite, philippines. International journal of recent advances in organizational behaviour & decision sciences, 2(2), 734–751. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Revenio-
[47]   Kuhnert, K. W., & Lewis, P. (1987). Transactional and transformational leadership: a constructive developmental analysis. Academy of management review, 12(4), 648–657. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1987.4306717
[48]   Bass, B. M., Avolio, B. J., Jung, D. I., & Berson, Y. (2003). Predicting unit performance by assessing transformational and transactional leadership. Journal of applied psychology, 88(2), 207–218. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.2.207
[49]   Ahmed, T., Haider, A., & Alvi, B. (2021). Impact of transformational and transactional leadership styles on employee performance with mediating effect of affective commitment: a study of banking sector of Pakistan. Global management sciences review, VI, 6, 1–11. https://scholar.archive.org/work/pdj3ckpn2rfzvmitear6rvtmdu
[50]   Hasija, K. G., Hyde, A. M., & Kushwaha, V. S. (2019). A study of management by exception: active, passive & laissez-faire leadership style of leaders in B school. International bulletin of management and economics, 9, 150–161.
[51]   Gitoho, S. W., Kamau, J. N., & Muchara, M. (2016). Influence of transactional leadership on employee job satisfaction: case study of firms listed on the Nairobi securities exchange. The international journal of business & management, 4(7). http://41.204.183.105/handle/11732/3029
[52]   Aslam, S., Khan, M. B., & Ullah, N. (2018). Impact of overall injustice on employee performance: moderating effect of supportive leadership style. European online journal of natural and social sciences, 7(3). https://european-science.com/eojnss/article/view/5277
[53]   Elsaied, M. M. (2019). Supportive leadership, proactive personality and employee voice behavior. American journal of business, 34(1), 2–18. https://doi.org/10.1108/AJB-01-2017-0004
[54]   Chen, Z., Song, M., Jia, L., & Wang, Z. (2017). How authoritarian leadership and renqing orientation improve tacit knowledge sharing [presentation]. Proceedings of the 50th hawaii international conference on system sciences (pp. 4475–4484). https://aisel.aisnet.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1561&context=hicss-50
[55]   Wang, H., & Guan, B. (2018). The positive effect of authoritarian leadership on employee performance: the moderating role of power distance. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 1–10. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00357
[56]   Purwanto, A., Wijayanti, L. M., Hyun, C. C., & Asbari, M. (2019). The effect of tansformational, transactional, authentic and authoritarian leadership style toward lecture performance of private university in Tangerang. Dinasti international journal of digital business management, 1(1), 29–42.
[57]   Faqhi Farhamand, N. (2013). Priorities of management styles to improve the performance of service organizations (case study: urban service organizations of Tabriz). Productivity management, 7(4), 99–124.
[58]   Pawirosumarto, S., Sarjana, P. K., & Muchtar, M. (2017). Factors affecting employee performance of PT.Kiyokuni Indonesia. International journal of law and management, 59(4), 602–614.
[59]   Savitri, E., & Sudarsyah, A. (2021). Transformational leadership for improving teacher’s performance during the covid-19 pandemic. 4th international conference on research of educational administration and management (ICREAM 2020) (pp. 308-312). Atlantis Press.
 [60] Darma, P. S., & Supriyanto, A. S. (2017). The effect of compensation on satisfaction and employee performance. Management and economics journal (MEC-J), 1(1). https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3141006
[61]   Narayanamurthy, G., & Tortorella, G. (2021). Impact of COVID-19 outbreak on employee performance – moderating role of industry 4.0 base technologies. International journal of production economics, 234, 108075. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925527321000517
[62]   Zhao, F., Ahmed, F., & Faraz, N. A. (2020). Caring for the caregiver during COVID-19 outbreak: does inclusive leadership improve psychological safety and curb psychological distress? A cross-sectional study. International journal of nursing studies, 110, 103725. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2020.103725
[63]   Na-Nan, K., Kanthong, S., & Joungtrakul, J. (2021). An empirical study on the model of self-efficacy and organizational citizenship behavior transmitted through employee engagement, organizational commitment and Job Satisfaction in the Thai Automobile Parts Manufacturing industry. Journal of open innovation: technology, market, and complexity, 7(3), 170. DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc7030170
[64]   Bartsch, S., Weber, E., Büttgen, M., & Huber, A. (2021). Leadership matters in crisis-induced digital transformation: how to lead service employees effectively during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of service management, 32(1), 71–85. https://doi.org/10.1108/JOSM-05-2020-0160
[65]   Yahaya, A., Yahaya, N., Bon, A. T., Ismail, S., & Ing, T. C. (2011). Stress level and its influencing factors among employees in a plastic manufacturing and the implication towards work performance. Elixir psychology, 41(2011), 5932–5941.
[66]   Román-Calderón, J. P., Acevedo-Jaramillo, M. E., Escalante, J. E., Arias, A., Aguilar-Barrientos, S., & Barbosa, J. (2018). Creativity and job tension in experiential learning. 2018 IEEE frontiers in education conference (FIE) (pp. 1-5). IEEE. DOI: 10.1109/FIE.2018.8659218
 [67] Mauer, C. (2015). How to motivate employees: strategies and techniques for motivating employees and staff for greater employee engagement. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.
[68]   Meltz, N. M. (1989). Job security in Canada. Relations industrielles, 44(1), 149–161.
[69]   Daud, N. (2017). Job security and well-being among private workers in malaysia. Journal of technology management and business, 4(1). https://publisher.uthm.edu.my/ojs/index.php/jtmb/article/view/1630
[70]   Kubicek, B., Paškvan, M., & Bunner, J. (2017). The bright and dark sides of job autonomy. Job demands in a changing world of work: impact on workers’ health and performance and implications for research and practice, 45-63. Cham: Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-54678-0_4
[71]   Shin, I., & Jeung, C. W. (2019). Uncovering the turnover intention of proactive employees: the mediating role of work engagement and the moderated mediating role of job autonomy. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(5). https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/16/5/843
[72]   Sabin, S. I., & Marcel, P. (2014). Group cohesion important factor in sport performance. European scientific journal, 10(26), 163–174. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Sopa-Ioan-
[73]   Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1975). Development of the job diagnostic survey. Journal of applied psychology, 60(2), 159–170. DOI:10.1037/h0076546
[74]   Teas, R. K., Wacker, J. G., & Hughes, R. E. (1979). A path analysis of causes and consequences of salespeople’s perceptions of role clarity. Journal of marketing research, 16(3), 355–369.
[75]   Akhtar, S., & Zia-ur-Rehman, M. (2017). Impact of managerial coaching behavior on job performance: analyzing the role of organization commitment and role clarity. Journal of managerial sciences, 11(3), 298–318.
[76]   Robbins, S. P., & Coulter, M. A. (2013). Management. Pearson. https://www.amazon.com/Management-12th-Stephen-P-Robbins/dp/0133043606
[77]   Sansone, C., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (2000). Looking beyond rewards: the problem and promise of intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (pp. 1–9). San Diego: Academic Press.
[78]   Pang, K., & Lu, C.-S. (2018). Organizational motivation, employee job satisfaction and organizational performance. Maritime business review, 3(1), 36–52. https://doi.org/10.1108/MABR-03-2018-0007
[79]   rezaee,  bijan, & Tarin, H. (2018). A meta-analysis on researchs on effective factors on the performance of school principals. School administration, 5(2), 193–215. https://jsa.uok.ac.ir/article_57953.html
[80]   Alavi, S. R. (1384). An introduction to human resource leadership, with an emphasis on collaborative management. The growth of technology, 1(4), 40–47. https://elmnet.ir/doc/289776-21302?elm_num=4
[81]   Abedini, M., & Shahabifar, L. (1395). Investigating the relationship between managers’ management style and organizational effectiveness in elementary schools of bavi city [presentation]. The second international conference on new paradigms of management, innovation and entrepreneurship (pp. 1–12). (In Persian). https://civilica.com/doc/556091
[82]   Azizaha, Y. N., Rijalb, M. K., Rumainurc, U. N. R., Pranajayae, S. A., Ngiuf, Z., Mufidg, A., … & Maui, D. H. (2020). Transformational or transactional leadership style: Which affects work satisfaction and performance of Islamic university lecturers during COVID-19 pandemic. Systematic reviews in pharmacy, 11(7), 577–588. https://www.academia.edu/download/87355955/transformational-or-transactional-leadership-style-which-affects-work-satisfaction-and-performance-of-islamic-university.pdf
[83]   Baig, S. A., Iqbal, S., Zia-ur-Rehman, M., Abrar, M., AhmadBaig, I., Amjad, F., & Awan, M. U. (2021). Impact of leadership styles on employees’ performance with moderating role of positive psychological capital. Total quality management & business excellence, 32(9–10), 1085–1105. https://doi.org/10.1080/14783363.2019.1665011
[84]   Suprapti, S., Asbari, M., Cahyono, Y., Mufid, A., & Khasanah, N. E. (2020). Leadership style, organizational culture and innovative behavior on public health center performance during pandemic Covid-19. Journal of industrial engineering & management research, 1(2), 76–88. https://jiemar.org/index.php/jiemar/article/view/42
[85]   Odunlami, S. A., Awosusi, O. O., & Awolusi, O. D. (2017). The influence of leadership styles on employees’ performance: a study of selected private universities in Ogun State, Nigeria. Global journal of commerce and management perspective, 6(2), 5–13. https://www.academia.edu/download/102654150/5-13-LEADERSHIP-vol-6-2-17-gjcmp.pdf
[86]   İşcan, Ö. F., Ersarı, G., & Naktiyok, A. (2014). Effect of leadership style on perceived organizational performance and innovation: the role of transformational leadership beyond the impact of transactional leadership – an application among Turkish SME’s. Procedia - social and behavioral sciences, 150, 881–889. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877042814051465
[87]   Al Khajeh, E. H. (2018). Impact of leadership styles on organizational performance. Journal of human resources management research, 2018, 1–10. https://ibimapublishing.com/uploads/articles/JHRMR/2018/687849/687849-1.pdf
[88]   Iqbal, N., Anwar, S., Haider, N., & others. (2015). Effect of leadership style on employee performance. Arabian journal of business and management review, 5(5), 1–6. https://www.academia.edu/download/43312296/effect-of-leadership-style-on-employee-performance-2223-5833-1000146.pdf
[89]   Gemeda, H. K., & Lee, J. (2020). Leadership styles, work engagement and outcomes among information and communications technology professionals: a cross-national study. Heliyon, 6(4). https://www.cell.com/heliyon/pdf/S2405-8440(20)30544-2.pdf
[90]   Bidar, A., Jaafari, M., & Mohammadi Moghadam, Y. (2019). Investigating the effect of leadership style on employees’ performance (case study: deputy of human resources of NAJA). NAJA human resources, 10(55), 63–104.
[91]   Jafariharandi, R. (2018). The role of transformational and transactional leadership style of managers on organizational performance of the staff of the university of Qom. Research on educational leadership and management, 4(16), 1–35. https://jrlat.atu.ac.ir/article_11606.html
[92]   Ngo, X. T., Le, H. A., & Doan, T. K. (2022). The impact of transformational leadership style and employee creativity on organizational innovation in universities during the Covid-19 pandemic. Humanities and social sciences letters, 10(1), 36–53. https://archive.conscientiabeam.com/index.php/73/article/view/2234
[93]   Mansyur, A., Arfah, A., & Semmaila, B. (2022). Relationship between transformational leadership style and job satisfaction on employee performance. Point of view research management, 3(2), 108–120. http://www.journal.accountingpointofview.id/index.php/POVREMA/article/view/197
[94]   Ariani, N., Sansuwito, T. bin, Prasath, R., Novera, M., Sarli, D., & Poddar, S. (2022). The effect of leadership styles on Nurse performances and job satisfaction among nurses in dumai public hospital: technological innovation as mediator. Malaysian journal of medicine & health sciences, 18, 120-135.
[95]   Saputra, F., & Mahaputra, M. R. (2022). Effect of job satisfaction, employee loyalty and employee commitment on leadership style (human resource literature study. Dinasti international journal of management science, 3(4), 762–772. https://doi.org/10.31933/dijms.v3i4.1324
[96]   Islam, R., & bin Mohd Rasad, S. (2006). Employee performance evaluation by the AHP: a case study. Asia pacific management review, 11(3). https://rafikulislam.com/uploads/myworks/27066075955b8a1b374434.pdf
[97]   Barsalani, E., Ziari, E. D., & Nadalizadeh, F. (2021). Evaluation of individual performance based on the integrated approach of combined fuzzy process of design and engineering companies in the oil, gas and petrochemical industry. Journal of critical reviews, 8(2), 1002–1016. https://www.jcreview.com/admin/Uploads/Files/61cacddd3e3bb3.53173744.pdf
[98]   Mwaiko, M. (2013). Factors affecting employee performance assessment in the educaton sector in Tanzania: a case study of Pugu secondary school (Doctoral Dissertation, Mzumbe University). http://repository.costech.or.tz/handle/11192/1239
[99]   Albayrak, E., & Erensal, Y. C. (2004). Using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to improve human performance: an application of multiple criteria decision making problem. Journal of intelligent manufacturing, 15, 491–503. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/B:JIMS.0000034112.00652.4c
[100] Falsafi, N., Zenouz, R. Y., & Mozaffari, M. M. (2011). Employees’ performance appraisal with TOPSIS under fuzzy environment. International journal of society systems science, 3(3), 272–290. https://www.inderscienceonline.com/doi/abs/10.1504/IJSSS.2011.041769
[101] Diamantidis, A. D., & Chatzoglou, P. (2019). Factors affecting employee performance: an empirical approach. International journal of productivity and performance management, 68(1), 171–193. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJPPM-01-2018-0012
[102] Nguyen, P. T., Yandi, A., & Mahaputra, M. R. (2020). Factors that influence employee performance: motivation, leadership, environment, culture organization, work achievement, competence and compensation (a study of human resource management literature studies). Dinasti international journal of digital business management, 1(4), 645–662. https://www.dinastipub.org/DIJDBM/article/view/389
[103] Nesheim, T., Olsen, K. M., & Sandvik, A. M. (2017). Never walk alone: achieving work performance through networking ability and autonomy. Employee relations, 39(2), 240–253. https://doi.org/10.1108/ER-09-2016-0185
[104] Haghighi Fard Moayer, A., Moradi, M., Khalilzadeh, M., & Javad, N. S. K. (1387). Investigating the performance of work teams in the organization and factors affecting it. Organizational development of the police, 5(5), 1–23. https://elmnet.ir/doc/1300876-41032?elm_num=1
[105] Morgeson, F. P., Delaney-Klinger, K., & Hemingway, M. A. (2005). The importance of job autonomy, cognitive ability, and job-related skill for predicting role breadth and job performance. Journal of applied psychology, 90(2), 399. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2005-02538-016
[106] Zaccaro, S. J. (1991). Nonequivalent associations between forms of cohesiveness and group-related outcomes: evidence for multidimensionality. The journal of social psychology, 131(3), 387–399. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1991.9713865
[107] Man, D. C., & Lam, S. S. K. (2003). The effects of job complexity and autonomy on cohesiveness in collectivistic and individualistic work groups: a cross-cultural analysis. Journal of organizational behavior, 24(8), 979–1001. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/job.227
[108] Cheong, M., Spain, S. M., Yammarino, F. J., & Yun, S. (2016). Two faces of empowering leadership: enabling and burdening. The leadership quarterly, 27(4), 602–616. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1048984316000072
[109] Savelsbergh, C., Gevers, J. M. P., van der Heijden, B. I. J. M., & Poell, R. F. (2012). Team role stress: relationships with team learning and performance in project teams. Group & organization management, 37(1), 67–100. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601111431977
[110] Gilboa, S., Shirom, A., Fried, Y., & Cooper, C. (2008). A meta-analysis of work demand stressors and job performance: examining main and moderating effects. Personnel psychology, 61(2), 227–271. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2008.00113.x
[111] Lusch, R. F., & Serpkenci, R. R. (1990). Personal differences, job tension, job outcomes, and store performance: a study of retail store managers. Journal of marketing, 54(1), 85–101.
[112] Imam, S., & Javed, T. (2019). Job security, organizational support and employee performance: mediating role of employee satisfaction in medical sector of Pakistan. International journal of academic research in business and social sciences, 9(3), 1240–1258.
[113] Anwar, M. S., Aslam, M., & Tariq, M. R. (2011). Temporary job and its impact on employee performance. Global journal of management and business research, 11(8), 23–28.
[114] Hurriyati, R., Tjahjono, B., Yamamoto, I., Rahayu, A., Abdullah, A. G., & Danuwijaya, A. A. (2020). Advances in business, management and entrepreneurship: proceedings of the 3rd global conference on business management & entrepreneurship (GC-BME 3), 8 August 2018, Bandung, Indonesia. CRC Press.
[115] Punia, P. (2011). Relationship between role clarity, job perception and performance of employees in a scientific research organization. Journal of psychosocial research, 6(2), 307-314.
[116]    Lynn, G., & Kalay, F. (2015). The effect of vision and role clarity on team performance. Journal of business economics and finance, 4(3). DOI:10.17261/Pressacademia.2015313067
[117]    Nnaji-Ihedinmah, N. C., & Egbunike, F. C. (2015). Effect of rewards on employee performance in organizations: a study of selected commercial banks in Awka metropolis. European journal of business and management, 7(4), 80–88. https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/document?
[118]    Güngör, P. (2011). The relationship between reward management system and employee performance with the mediating role of motivation: a quantitative study on global banks. Procedia - social and behavioral sciences, 24, 1510–1520. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877042811015576
[119]    Rahmani, A., Vaziri Nezhad, R., Ahmadi Nia, H., & Rezaeian, M. (2020). Methodological principles and applications of the delphi method: a narrative review. Journal of rafsanjan university of medical sciences, 19(5). http://journal.rums.ac.ir/article-1-5107-en.html
[120]    Chakraborty, S. (2014). Applications of WASPAS method in manufacturing decision making. Informatica, 25(1), 1–20.
[121]    Krylovas, A., Zavadskas, E. K., Kosareva, N., & Dadelo, S. (2014). New KEMIRA method for determining criteria priority and weights in solving MCDM problem. International journal of information technology & decision making, 13(06), 1119–1133. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0219622014500825
[122]    Setälä, M. (2021). The appearance of coaching leadership style within marketing industry and marketing teams: has COVID-19 effected on the managers’ used leadership style? https://osuva.uwasa.fi/handle/10024/12725
[123]    Wiyatno, T. N., Juniarti, A. T., & Sudirman, I. (2023). Analysis of TQM implementations in the floor tiles industry. Journal of applied research on industrial engineering, 10(3), 340–349. https://www.journal-aprie.com/article_158091.html
[124]    Hidayat, T., Fahmy, R., Sari, D. K., Mergeresa, F., & Fernando, Y. (2021). COVID-19 outbreak effects on leadership, job satisfaction and turnover intention: a mediating model of Indonesian banking sector. International journal of industrial management, 10, 113–128. https://journal.ump.edu.my/ijim/article/view/6011